Animal Farm
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"Animal Farm" Summary

By George Orwell

classics | Published in 2004


Estimated read time: 6 min read

One Sentence Summary

A group of farm animals overthrow their human owner, only to find themselves oppressed by their fellow animals in this allegorical tale of power and corruption.


"Animal Farm" by George Orwell is a classic allegorical novella that explores the dangers of totalitarianism and the corrupting influence of power. Set on a farm, the story follows the animals as they rebel against their human owner and establish their own self-governing society. Through the animals' struggles and the subsequent rise of the pigs to power, Orwell provides a powerful commentary on the nature of political systems, leadership, and the potential for revolution to devolve into tyranny.

Brief Synopsis

Plot Overview

The story unfolds on Manor Farm, where the animals, led by the pigs, stage a rebellion against the oppressive Mr. Jones. After successfully driving the humans off the farm, the animals rename it Animal Farm and establish their own set of Seven Commandments, which embody their vision of equality and shared prosperity. However, as time passes, the pigs, particularly Napoleon and Snowball, assume leadership roles and begin to exert control over the other animals.


The setting of "Animal Farm" is a rural, agricultural environment, specifically on Manor Farm. The farm serves as a microcosm of a society undergoing political upheaval and the subsequent formation of a new government.

Main Characters

The novella features several main characters, each representing different aspects of society and political ideologies.

NapoleonA Berkshire boar who becomes the tyrannical leader of Animal Farm, representing the archetype of a dictator.
SnowballA pig who initially co-leads the revolution with Napoleon, embodying the idealistic and intellectual side of leadership.
BoxerA loyal and hardworking cart-horse who symbolizes the dedicated proletariat.
Old MajorAn aging boar who inspires the animals to rebel against human oppression, serving as the archetype of a revolutionary leader.
SquealerA pig who serves as Napoleon's propagandist and symbolizes the manipulative nature of political rhetoric.

Summary of Story Points Over Chapters

Chapter 1-2

  • The animals on Manor Farm, led by Old Major, express their discontent with human oppression and envision a future free from human control.
  • Old Major's stirring speech inspires the animals to stage a rebellion against Mr. Jones and his human cronies.

Chapter 3-4

  • The animals successfully drive Mr. Jones off the farm and establish their own government based on the Seven Commandments of Animalism.
  • The pigs, particularly Napoleon and Snowball, emerge as the leaders, and ideological differences between them become apparent.

Chapter 5-6

  • Snowball and Napoleon clash over the construction of a windmill, which Snowball believes will improve the animals' quality of life.
  • Napoleon uses a pack of fierce dogs to chase Snowball off the farm, solidifying his control and initiating a shift towards authoritarianism.

Chapter 7-8

  • The pigs, especially Napoleon, begin to enjoy privileges and luxuries, contradicting the original principles of Animalism.
  • Boxer, the dedicated cart-horse, becomes a symbol of hard work and loyalty, but is ultimately betrayed by the pigs' exploitation.

Chapter 9-10

  • The pigs fully embrace human behaviors and interact with neighboring farmers, highlighting the hypocrisy and corruption within their leadership.
  • The Seven Commandments are altered to justify the pigs' actions, illustrating the erosion of the animals' original ideals.

Main Events

  1. Rebellion against Mr. Jones and the humans
  2. Establishment of Animal Farm and the Seven Commandments
  3. Leadership struggle between Snowball and Napoleon
  4. Napoleon's rise to power and expulsion of Snowball
  5. Exploitation of the working class, particularly Boxer
  6. Pigs' transformation into human-like figures
  7. Manipulation of the Seven Commandments to justify the pigs' actions

Themes and Insights


  1. Corruption of Power: The novella explores how power can corrupt individuals and institutions, leading to the betrayal of ideals and the oppression of others.
  2. Totalitarianism: Through the pigs' gradual transformation into tyrannical rulers, Orwell critiques the dangers of totalitarian regimes and the loss of individual freedoms.
  3. Class Struggle: The exploitation of the working class animals by the ruling pigs reflects the broader theme of class struggle and the manipulation of labor for the benefit of the elite.
  4. Propaganda and Manipulation: The use of propaganda, exemplified by Squealer, highlights the manipulation of truth and language to maintain control and justify unjust actions.


Orwell's depiction of the animals' revolution and subsequent descent into tyranny serves as a cautionary tale about the potential for noble ideals to be corrupted by greed, power, and the human desire for dominance. The novella offers valuable insights into the cyclical nature of political systems and the susceptibility of revolutions to be co-opted by individuals with authoritarian tendencies.

Reader's Takeaway

"Animal Farm" prompts readers to critically examine the nature of power, leadership, and societal structures. It serves as a stark reminder of the fragility of democratic principles and the ease with which they can be subverted. The allegorical nature of the story allows readers to draw parallels to historical and contemporary political movements, fostering a deeper understanding of the complexities inherent in governance and the potential consequences of unchecked authority.


"Animal Farm" by George Orwell remains a timeless and thought-provoking work that continues to resonate with readers due to its incisive commentary on the perils of power and the human condition. By weaving allegory and satire, Orwell delivers a compelling narrative that encourages introspection and critical analysis of political dynamics and societal structures. The novella's enduring relevance lies in its ability to stimulate discourse on the nature of governance, the pitfalls of revolution, and the insidious allure of authoritarianism.

Animal Farm FAQ

  1. What is the main theme of Animal Farm?

    The main theme of Animal Farm is the corrupting nature of power and the dangers of totalitarianism.

  2. Who are the main characters in Animal Farm?

    The main characters in Animal Farm include Old Major, Napoleon, Snowball, Boxer, and Squealer.

  3. What is the significance of the animals in Animal Farm?

    The animals in Animal Farm represent different groups in society and symbolize the effects of political power and manipulation.

  4. What is the historical context of Animal Farm?

    Animal Farm is an allegory of the Russian Revolution and the rise of Stalinism, highlighting the dangers of totalitarianism and dictatorship.

  5. What is the writing style of Animal Farm?

    Animal Farm is written in a straightforward and accessible style, using allegory and satire to convey its political message.